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ⓘ Information technology



                                               

Data format

Data format in information technology can mean: Recording format, a format for encoding data for storage on a storage medium Data type, constraint placed upon the interpretation of data in a type system File format, a format for encoding data for storage in a computer file Video format, a format for processing video data Content format, a format for converting data to information Audio format, a format for processing audio data

                                               

Packet

Packet may refer to: Packet sea transport, a packet service is a regular scheduled service, carrying valuable freight and first class passengers Packet Newspapers - newspapers with the title including the word "Packet", after a place-name. Packet radio, a form of amateur radio data communications using the AX25 protocol Packet information technology, a formatted block of data carried by a packet mode computer network C-82 Packet, a U.S. military transport aircraft A small parcel e.g. Cigarette packet, Sugar packet

                                     

ⓘ Information technology

Information technology is a term that encompasses all forms of technology used to create, store, exchange, and use information in its various forms.

Now, people have been using it to refer to other aspects of technology. It now covers many more fields of study than it has covered in the past.

                                     

1. History

Four basic periods Characterized by a principal technology used to solve the input, processing, output and communication problems of the time:

  • Premechanical,
  • Mechanical,
  • Electronic
  • Electromechanical, and
                                     

1.1. History A. The Premechanical Age: 3000 B.C. – 1450 A.D.

  • 3000 B.C., the Sumerians in Mesopotamia what is today southern Iraq devised cuneiform
  • Writing and Alphabets - communication.
  • The Greeks later adopted the Phoenician alphabet and added vowels; the Romans gave the letters Latin names to create the alphabet we use today.
  • Around 2000 B.C., Phoenicians created symbols
  • First humans communicated only through speaking and picture drawings.
  • About 2600 B.C., the Egyptians write on the papyrus plant
  • around 100 A.D., the Chinese made paper from rags, on which modern-day papermaking is based.
  • Sumerians input technology was a stylus that could scratch marks in wet clay.
  • Paper and Pens - input technologies.
  • The Egyptians kept scrolls
  • Religious leaders in Mesopotamia kept the earliest "books"
  • Around 600 B.C., the Greeks began to fold sheets of papyrus vertically into leaves and bind them together.
  • Books and Libraries: Permanent Storage Devices.
  • Egyptian system
  • The First Numbering Systems.
  • The numbers 1-9 as vertical lines, the number 10 as a U or circle, the number 100 as a coiled rope, and the number 1.000 as a lotus blossom.
  • The first place value numbering systems similar to those in use today were invented between 100 and 200 A.D. in India who created a nine-digit numbering system.
  • Around 875 A.D., the concept of zero was developed.
  • The First Calculators: The Abacus.

One of the very first information processors.

                                     

1.2. History B. The Mechanical Age: 1450 – 1840

  • Invented the movable metal-type printing process in 1450.
  • Johann Gutenberg Mainz, Germany
  • The First Information Explosion.
  • The development of book indexes and the widespread use of page numbers.
  • The first general purpose "computers"
  • Actually people who held the job title "computer: one who works with numbers."
  • Slide Rules, the Pascaline and Leibnizs Machine.

Early 1600s, William Oughtred, an English clergyman, invented the slide rule.

                                     

1.3. History C. The Electromechanical Age: 1840 – 1940.

The discovery of ways to harness electricity was the key advance made during this period. Knowledge and information could now be converted into electrical impulses.

  • Voltaic Battery.
  • Late 18th century.
  • The Beginnings of Telecommunication.
  • Telegraph.
  • Early 1800s.
  • Dots and dashes.
  • Developed in 1835 by Samuel Morse
  • Morse Code.
  • Alexander Graham Bell.
  • Telephone and Radio.
  • 1876
  • Followed by the discovery that electrical waves travel through space and can produce an effect far from the point at which they originated.
  • 1894
  • These two events led to the invention of the radio
  • Guglielmo Marconi

2. Electromechanical Computing

  • Herman Hollerith and IBM. Herman Hollerith 1860–1929 in 1880.
  • Mark 1
  • Howard Aiken, a Ph.D. student at Harvard University
  • Built the Mark I
  • 8 feet tall, 51 feet long, 2 feet thick, weighed 5 tons, used about 750.000 parts
  • Completed January 1942


                                     

1.4. History D. The Electronic Age: 1940 – Present.

  • Early 1940s
  • First Tries.
  • Electronic vacuum tubes.
  • Eckert and Mauchly.
  • ENIAC, fixed, not stored, program

3. The First Stored-Program Computers

  • Early 1940s, Mauchly and Eckert began to design the EDVAC - the Electronic Discreet Variable Computer.
  • "The Report on the EDVAC"
  • John von Neumanns influential report in June 1945
  • Max Newman headed up the effort at Manchester University
  • British scientists used this report and outpaced the Americans.
  • Where the Manchester Mark I went into operation in June 1948-- becoming the first stored-program computer.
  • Maurice Wilkes, a British scientist at Cambridge University, completed the EDSAC Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator in 1949 - two years before EDVAC was finished.
  • Thus, EDSAC became the first stored-program computer in general use i.e., not a prototype.
  • The First General-Purpose Computer for Commercial Use: Universal Automatic Computer UNIVAC.
  • Late 1940s, Eckert and Mauchly began the development of a computer called UNIVAC Universal Automatic Computer
  • First UNIVAC delivered to Census Bureau in 1951.
  • Remington Rand.
  • But, a machine called LEO Lyons Electronic Office went into action a few months before UNIVAC and became the worlds first commercial computer.

3. The Four Generations of Digital Computing.

The First Generation 1951–1958.

  • Vacuum tubes as their main logic elements.
  • Programs written in
  • Assembly language
  • Punch cards to input and externally store data.
  • Compiler language
  • Rotating magnetic drums for internal storage of data and programs
  • Machine code

The Second Generation 1959–1963.

  • Vacuum tubes replaced by transistors as main logic element.
  • AT&Ts Bell Laboratories, in the 1940s
  • Crystalline mineral materials called semiconductors could be used in the design of a device called a transistor
  • Magnetic cores very small donut-shaped magnets that could be polarized in one of two directions to represent data strung on wire within the computer became the primary internal storage technology.
  • Magnetic tape and disks began to replace punched cards as external storage devices.
  • High-level programming languages
  • e.g., FORTRAN and COBOL

The Third Generation 1964–1979.

Individual transistors were replaced by integrated circuits.

  • Magnetic tape and disks completely replace punch cards as external storage devices.
  • Magnetic core internal memories began to give way to a new form, metal oxide semiconductor MOS memory, which, like integrated circuits, used silicon-backed chips.
  • Advanced programming languages like BASIC developed.
  • Operating systems
  • Initially sold for $1.195 without a monitor; had 16k RAM.
  • Large-scale and very large-scale integrated circuits LSIs and VLSICs
  • The Fourth Generation 1979–Present.
  • Microprocessors that contained memory, logic, and control circuits an entire CPU = Central Processing Unit on a single chip.
  • Apple II released to public in 1977, by Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs.
  • Which allowed for home-use personal computers or PCs, like the Apple II and Mac and IBM PC.
  • IBM PC introduced in 1981.
  • Debuts with MS-DOS Microsoft Disk Operating System
  • First Apple Mac released in 1984.
  • MS Windows debuts in 1983.
  • e.g., VisiCalc, Lotus 1-2-3, dBase, Microsoft Word, and many others.
  • Graphical User Interfaces GUI for PCs arrive in early 1980s
  • Fourth generation language software products
  • Windows wouldnt take off until version 3 was released in 1990
  • Apples GUI on the first Mac debuts in 1984.
                                     

2. Field of Study

  • A Bachelor of Information Technology or BEIT) is an undergraduate academic degree that generally requires three to five years of study. While the degree has a major focus on computers and technology, it differs from a Computer Science degree in that students are also expected to study management and information science, and there are reduced requirements for mathematics. A degree in computer science can be expected to concentrate on the scientific aspects of computing, while a degree in information technology can be expected to concentrate on the business and communication applications of computing. There is more emphasis on these two areas in the electronic commerce, e-business and business information technology undergraduate courses. Specific names for the degrees vary across countries, and even universities within countries.

This is in contrast to a Bachelor of Science in Information Technology which is a bachelors degree typically conferred after a period of three to four years of an undergraduate course of study in Information Technology IT. The degree itself is a Bachelor of Science with institutions conferring degrees in the fields of information technology and related fields.

Many employers require software developers or programmers to have a Bachelor of Science in Computer Science degree; however, those seeking to hire for positions such as network administrators or database managers would require a Bachelors of Science in Information Technology or an equivalent degree. Graduates with an information technology background are able to perform technology tasks relating to the processing, storing, and communication of information between computers, mobile phones, and other electronic devices. Information technology as a field emphasizes the secure management of large amounts of diverse information and its accessibility via a wide variety of systems both local and world-wide.

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